The tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the income statement because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group's liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the liability is settled or the asset is realised. Deferred tax is charged or credited in profit or loss, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to other comprehensive income, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in other comprehensive income.
Ordinary share capital is classified as equity. Interim ordinary dividends are recognised when paid and final ordinary dividends are recognised as a liability in the year in which they are approved.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Where the Group expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the income statement net of any reimbursement. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Commitments and contingent liabilities are disclosed in the financial statements. They are disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. A contingent asset is not recognised in the financial statements but disclosed when an inflow of economic benefits is virtually certain.
Events subsequent to the year end that provide additional information about the Group’s position at the balance sheet date and are adjusting events are reflected in the financial statements. Events subsequent to the year end that are not adjusting events are disclosed in the notes when material.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGMENTS AND KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION AND UNCERTAINTY
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS as adopted by the EU requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgment in the process of applying the Group’s accounting policies. The areas involving a higher degree of judgment or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the Group financial statements are disclosed below.
Estimates and judgments are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the present circumstances.
VALUATION OF INVENTORY
The Group assesses the net realisable value of inventories under development and completed properties held for sale according to their recoverable amounts based on the realisability of these properties, taking into account estimated costs to completion based on past experience and committed contracts and estimated net sales based on prevailing market conditions. Provision is made when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be realised. The assessment requires the use of judgment and estimates. The carrying amount of inventory is disclosed in note 11 to the financial statements.
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Annual report & consolidated financial statements 2016